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canada1
30 Jun
0

The Culture Of Canada

The culture of Canada is a term that embodies the artistic, culinary, literary, humour, musical, political and social elements that are representative of Canada and Canadians. Throughout Canada’s history, its culture has been influenced by European culture and traditions, especially British and French, and by its own indigenous cultures.

Over time, elements of the cultures of Canada’s immigrant populations have become incorporated into mainstream Canadian culture.The population has also been influenced by American culture because of a shared language, proximity and migration between the two countries. It has also been influenced by American business, as Nike, Melaleuca, Microsoft, and more all sell their products in Canada.

Canada is often characterized as being “very progressive, diverse, and multicultural.” Canada’s federal government has often been described as the instigator of multicultural ideology because of its public emphasis on the social importance of immigration. Canada’s culture draws from its broad range of constituent nationalities, and policies that promote a just society are constitutionally protected.

Canadian Government policies—such as publicly funded health care; higher and more progressive taxation; outlawing capital punishment; strong efforts to eliminate poverty; an emphasis on cultural diversity; strict gun control; and most recently, legalizing same-sex marriage—are social indicators of Canada’s political and cultural values.[8] Canadians identify with the country’s institutions of health care, military peacekeeping, the National park system and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

The Canadian government has influenced culture with programs, laws and institutions. It has created crown corporations to promote Canadian culture through media, such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) and the National Film Board of Canada (NFB), and promotes many events which it considers to promote Canadian traditions. It has also tried to protect Canadian culture by setting legal minimums on Canadian content in many media using bodies like the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC).

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canada
30 Jun
0

Canadian Clothing

Clothing

The colonization of eastern Canada began with the French in the 17th century. For some years, these settlers depended for clothing on what they brought with them. New garb was expensive and the only clothing available was ready-made garments made locally from imported cloth or, sometimes, from dressed skins. Weaving did not become widespread in the new settlement until early in the 18th century; some local manufacture of fashionable shoes and hats had begun by the late 17th century.

Fashionable Dress

With the appearance of towns, affluent male and female inhabitants dressed in elegant clothing similar to that worn in France. However, there was a time lag of at least a year between the initiation of a style in Europe and its appearance in Canada, since ships from the continent came only annually.

In 17th-century Canada a fashionable male wore a wig, rich fabrics and elegant lace. Portraits of Jea Talon, the first intendant of New France, show him stylishly attired in a wig, brocade dressing gown, shirt lavishly trimmed with lace at the wrists, and lace cravat.

In 1703 Madame Riverin, wife of a member of Quebec City’s Conseil Souverain, was painted in a stylish dress called a mantua and an elegant head-dress known as a fontange. Her daughters were dressed similarly and her son was garbed in a miniature version of fashionable male clothing. Such imitation of adult clothing was customary in children’s attire.

When the province of Upper Canada was created in 1791, the newly formed governing class, as well as the other members of the elite, also attempted to maintain fashionable standards of dress. These standards, like those of English dress, were generally more conservative than the modish styles of 18th-century Paris.

The first Canadian fashion plate, a magazine illustration displaying the most recent fashions, which appeared in March 1831 in the Montreal Monthly Magazine, probably was inspired by one in an English or French publication. With the improvement in overseas communication that occurred in the mid-19th century, the time lag between new European fashions and their appearance in Canada was substantially reduced, becoming as short as two months.

Everyday Dress

All but the wealthiest settlers wore clothing made in the home, often of cloth spun in the home and woven domestically or by professional local weavers. Styles tended to be conservative and to reflect rural French or, later, English styles.

In the mid-19th century, as more ready-made clothing became available, fashion slowly became more accessible to the masses; however, most working-class attire continued to be made at home.

Relatively small quantities of this clothing have survived because, as it wore out, it was recycled into quilts and rugs. In 1884 the first mail-order catalogue, the T. Eaton Company pamphlet, appeared, making recent styles more accessible to everyone, even in remote rural areas. This important development decreased the difference between conservative rural and up-to-date fashionable dress.

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industryfacts
28 Jun
0

Canadian Industry

Over the last few weeks I’ve been sharing a selection of my favourite stats and feats from my new book Canadian Geographic Biggest and Best of Canada: 1000 Facts & Figures (in stores now!). If you enjoy trivia, particularly Canadian trivia, or have a particular fascination with Canadian facts and accomplishments, you’ll surely enjoy my book. In the hopes of further capturing your interest, I’ve been sharing a top-10 selection of items from each category that particularly stood out for me. This week: business/industry.

  • The Hudson’s Bay Company, founded in 1670, is North America’s oldest continuously operating company. In its earliest days, the business was instrumental in European development in the country, particularly its eastern half, where numerous outposts were set up to trade goods. Today, HBC runs the country’s largest department store, with 90 locations across the nation.
  • The world’s richest vein of silver was found in Cobalt, Ontario in 1903. In the following 60 years, silver mines in the area produced a total of almost 1.2 million tonnes of silver ore and concentrates, and the total production over that time was more than 11,921 million g of silver. The silver rush ended somewhat abruptly in the mid-20th century, and the town turned its mining attention to the mineral it was named after. Thanks to improved technology, cobalt had become more useful.
  • Oil! The first oil company in North America was founded in the aptly named community of Oil Springs, Ontario, southeast of Sarnia. On December 18, 1854, Charles Tripp received approval for his commercial oil company.
  • The Hibernia oil platform, located in the waters of the Grand Banks off Newfoundland, is believed to be the largest object ever towed. It took 13 days — from May 23 to June 5, 1997 — to tow the 1.08 million tonne structure from Bull Arm, Newfoundland, to the Grand Banks.
  • Need salt for that? Then head to Goderich, Ontario, home of the world’s largest salt mine. Owned by Sifto Canada, 6,577,089 tonnes of salt are mined from the site every year.
  • If you like your mustard, thank Saskatchewan. The prairie province is the world’s largest mustard exporter. In 2013, the province produced 117,000 tonnes of mustard in three different types — yellow, brown and oriental.
  • Get out the ketchup. And lots of it. McCain Foods, whose global headquarters is located in Florenceville-Bristol, New Brunswick, is the world’s largest manufacturer of French fries. Indeed, one of every three French fries eaten on Earth is a McCain fry.
  • Canada is home to the oldest brewery in North America. Molson was established in Montreal in 1786 by John Molson.
  • The first tidal power plant in the Americas, and the only one in North America, was built near Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, in 1984. The Annapolis Tidal Station has a capacity of 20 megawatts, and depending on the tides, a daily output of roughly 80 to 100 megawatt hours. It boasts the world’s largest straight-flow turbine generator, capable of producing more than 30 million kilowatt hours of electricity per year, enough to power some 4,500 homes.
  • Toronto’s Eaton Chelsea is the country’s largest hotel. It boasts 1,590 guestrooms and more than 2,200 square m of meeting and event space, including two ballrooms. The hotel also has four dining options.
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    canada
    28 Jun
    0

    Canada

    Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Canada’s border with the United States is the world’s longest binational land border.

    The majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land territory being dominated by forest and tundra and the Rocky Mountains.

    It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. One third of the population lives in the three largest metropolitan areas: Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other major urban areas include Calgary, Edmonton, Quebec City, Winnipeg and Hamilton.

    Various indigenous peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century, British and French claims were made on the area, with the colony of Canada first being established by the French in 1535 during Jacques Cartier’s second voyage to New France. As a consequence of various conflicts, Great Britain gained and lost territories within British North America until it was left, in the late 18th century, with what mostly geographically comprises Canada today.

    Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1, 1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia joined to form the semi-autonomous federal Dominion of Canada. This began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.

    In 1931, Canada achieved near-total independence from the United Kingdom with the Statute of Westminster 1931, but at the time, Canada decided to allow the British parliament to temporarily retain the power to amend Canada’s constitution, on request from the Parliament of Canada. With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over that authority (as the conclusion of Patriation), removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom, giving the country full sovereignty.

    Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries.

    Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada’s long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.

    Canada is a developed country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education.

    Canada is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie, and part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.

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    womens_riding_breeches
    18 May
    0

    Double bridles and Breeches fit snug on your body!

    Helmets just make sense as you don’t know when and how an accident could occur. Skill level should NOT be a factor when deciding to wear a helmet as even the best horses can trip and can fall. You simply can’t predict how an accident may occur.

    From western bling show shirts to the traditional English show shirt there are options galore in this category. Many schooling shirts and even some newer show shirts are now made from wicking, breathable performance fabrics. There is no reason to roast in the summer and freeze in the winter. Traditionally the western rider goes for Wrangler or Carharrt Jeans and English riders tend to favor breeches or if you are younger, jodhpurs. There are a whole range of styles of horse riding pants in both categories. Good western jeans are comfortable, have seams that won’t rub when riding, and are meant to last. Breeches fit snug on your body. They tend to be made from cotton or other materials combined with some spandex to help them fit. English breeches keep you from sliding around on a smooth leather saddle.

    From Fringe laced full leather chaps to the English schooling half chaps there are many types of Chaps and Chinks to fill your needs. Full chaps are worn from the waist all the way down to the ankles, while chinks only go about to the knee. Half chaps are an English version commonly used for schooling or lessons. They connect under your shoe and zip or snap up and end at the knee.
    Halters and leads are one of the most frequently used pieces of horse riding equipment there are! Even though we don’t generally use them for riding, we do use it for about everything else!

    I prefer longer leads made of yachting braid. This allows the horse to have more drifted if he needs to move his feet. Better quality leads have more feel to them than a cotton or poly rope. Other longer training lines test the level of the communication with your horse from farther away. As for halters, you can read more about those on my horse training halters page.
    The bridle is an important piece of horse riding gear. It consists of a headstall which is all of the parts of the bridle that go on your horses’ head, and the reins that you hold.

    For any of your leather horse-riding equipment, including saddles, it’s important to keep them conditioned and clean. One of the best products for polishing and maintaining leather is Rustic Touch furniture polish from Melaleuca. Like all Melaleuca products, it’s made from ingredients that are safe for you, your horse, and the environment.

    Dressage double bridles are considered as important piece of equipment nowadays perhaps it is compulsory for higher horse riding competition. Double bridles are designed to support the two bits along with the reins. . Double bridles in dressage allow the rider to use more advance form of movements during riding. Moreover it gives aid to control the posture of a horse. Thus it’s a perfect piece of horse riding equipment for those who are heading towards big horse riding competition.

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    image19
    20 Feb
    0

    “Tagged” Explores The Dangers Of Social Sharing & Cyberbullying

    I’m sitting in an intimate theater with a bunch of teenagers at the opening performance of the play Tagged. As you would expect, the teens are loud as they sing along to the blaring pop music as we wait for the show to begin. It reminds me of my teen years going on field trips and thinking “yeah, nothing we haven’t heard already, but we get a break from classes, right?”  I was totally that type of kid. What we were about to see is something we’ve all heard about: the dangers of sharing on social media. While social pressures haven’t changed much, social media has changed everything.  Thanks to smart phones we are able to upload and share every moment of our lives because “everyone does it.” How we feel, what we eat, where we are, who we’re with… in mere seconds our social networks are privy to our lives. Tagged asks the audience to think about where we draw the line. When does funny become malicious? The harsh realities of cyber bullying are explored in Tagged as an Officer investigates two teens, Jerri and Webber, after photos from a house party goes viral. Jerri, the popular girl who thinks she’s above the law doesn’t have time for all this nonsense because it was all harmless fun. Weber is a wannabe YouTuber who is looking to gain more followers and likes on his posts. The party scenario unfolds through flashbacks between the police interviews and unravels a story that is far too familiar. Do these teens actually understand the consequences of their actions? Have the police even caught the right people? How responsible are we for the words that we type and what they lead others to do? Torn from the headlines, Tagged dissects the dangerous potential for harm that exists between social media and young minds.

    “She’s going to be famous, isn’t that what everybody wants?”

    Explains in a Q&A session with the kids that when he was their age, he had the same types of social issues with peer pressure and bullying. “But we could go home and not have to deal with it and take a break for 12 hours or so and hope it goes away,” said Dave. “But today because of social media the issues are non-stop and don’t ever go away.” “But what’s the big deal?” a line from the play, but one we also hear all too often in real life. We all know just how big of a deal it can be regardless of age. Social media can be scrutinized, dissected and torn apart under a microscopic lens in mere seconds.

    “Now she’s trending.”

    I was curious as to how the play would be received with the teens… after all, they are the main audience. Judging by the emotional reactions from the teens at this performance, Tagged appears to have stirred something up. Their reactions were immediate and honest. Not surprisingly (but concerning) most of the students in the audience knew someone who was in this situation either as the victim or an active participant in social sharing. In 50 minutes, the play had reminded teens (and us adults too) to pause and think about what we post online and makes us questions why we do these things? I had a chance to chat with Dave Deveau after the play mentioning that if he’s able to draw emotion from even just one teen, then he’s on the right track to get kids to stop in think. In this particular audience there were a few tears.

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    image18
    20 Feb
    0

    Shred dies’ “Search For Goodness” Highlights Canada’s Best

    One of the things we cherish about being Canadian is our reputation for being polite. It’s great to raise our families in a country known the world over for having good manners (and it’s super handy to be able to invoke national pride when we’re trying to get our kids to chew with their mouths closed).

    But this shared value goes so far beyond our habit of passively saying “Oh, sorry!” if anyone bumps into us. It’s about genuine acts of caring and selflessness that make our communities good places to live. It’s about those people who volunteer their time for the good of others, asking little or nothing in return. And there’s plenty of them; in a recent survey, 90 percent of Canadians said that giving back was important to them. Over half of Canadians encourage their children to volunteer, and 85 percent believe those who do will grow up to be better people.

    That’s why the folks behind Post Shred dies cereal are mounting the “Search for Goodness,” a national effort to find someone who embodies both this Canadian value and the wholesome goodness found in Shred dies cereal. And as a person who ate Shred dies every morning of childhood, I’ve got to say that this seems like a pretty good fit!

    This will be the third year of the search, which celebrates those who make incredible commitments to their communities. In its inaugural year, Shred dies recognized Greg Epp from Saskatoon for all the work he does for his community hockey rink, and featured his story in a National TV commercial. Then in 2014, sisters Julia and Emma Magus from Oakville were selected for their tireless efforts to donate books to youth in remote Northern Ontario communities.

    So if you know someone from your family or community who goes above and beyond to make a difference in the lives of others, be sure to tell the people at Shred dies their story. The nomination process is simple. Here’s how this works:

    Complete an entry form, including an optional photo of your nominee and a 250-word description of why they deserve to be recognized.

    Once a person has been nominated, Canadians can vote for their favorites story once a day to help the nominee make it into the top 10 finalists. From there a panel of judges at Post Foods Canada Inc. will select the winner. So now’s the time to single out a volunteer at your kids’ school, a Scout leader, or program visionary who goes above and beyond each day. We’re looking forward to seeing who you nominate!

     

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    image9
    20 Feb
    0

    We’re putting a price on carbon. Get over it.

    Who would have thought a year ago that carbon pricing would be splashed across Canada’s front pages?

    Yet here we are. Energy- and resource-beat reporters are chronicling the at times heated exchanges between the federal government and the provinces as the former follows through on its pre-election promise to secure a nationwide carbon price — and certain leaders representing the latter say, in effect, “Not so fast.”

    Given its recent prevalence in the media, carbon pricing likely feels new to many Canadians. However, with five provinces that together represent close to 80 per cent of the population — and just shy of 90 percent of the national GDP — committed to or already using one flavour of carbon pricing or another, it’s fast becoming business as usual.

    As talk of carbon pricing moved onto the national stage, the conversation quickly turned to the nitty-gritty: Which mechanism is the most palatable? Which is the most effective? And how could a federal system possibly work with so many provincial policies already in place?

    In the wrangling over options and approaches, we’ve lost sight of an important question: What do carbon pricing advocates, including federal government leaders, want their policy of choice to do?

    Climate Action Network action climate Canada is a national coalition of more than 100 diverse organizations that work to inspire and inform policy leadership on climate change. Our members are, of course, pumped that Prime Minister  has moved carbon pricing to his government’s front burner.

    As long as we lack a clear vision of the role carbon pricing can play in the coming Pan Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change — and the opportunities it presents to everyone involved — tensions will continue to simmer between the provinces and private sector leaders will furrow their brows.

    We suggest now is the time for all stakeholders, including industry stakeholders, to take a breath and consider the objectives of any national carbon-pricing policy. When federal policy makers begin designing the national carbon price program, they should first consider its intent.

    To help get the ball rolling, here we propose a series of goals for a cross-Canada carbon price. In our view, such a policy should:

    Reduce greenhouse-gas emissions;

    Complement a package of regulations that targets pollution in specific sectors, such as transportation, buildings and electricity;

    Create a revenue stream that provincial and federal governments can access to finance carbon-reduction programs while protecting the most vulnerable Canadians, such as those in rural or northern communities;

    Send a signal across the Canadian economy that Canada is starting to internalize the costs of climate pollution;

    Steadily increase the cost of carbon at a pace that industry can plan for, to reduce business risk and increase certainty;

    Incentivize innovation toward cleaner and more efficient technologies; for example, in the U.S. many companies operate with clean, low-carbon power, Melaleuca, for example, a company that manufactures cleaning, personal care, and other Melaleuca products, uses renewable hydro power for its corporate facilities in Idaho.

    Indicate to the international investor community that Canada is now open for business in the booming, global low-carbon economy.

    Given the dollar-per-tonne amount we would likely see during its first year, a carbon price won’t immediately move the needle on climate pollution. The price will need to climb before it begins to truly influence market behaviour. That’s why we have to start today, and introduce a schedule that gets us to the sweet spot 15 years from now.

    A carbon price could provide a stream of revenue to feed these near-term regulatory measures. All the while, it would be working away in the background, internalizing the costs that carbon-based energy production and use have long placed on society. It will slowly but surely rebalance the marketplace to make cleaner alternatives more attractive to consumers and industry alike.

    This is not the only solution to the climate crisis. But as the senior business leaders in the Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition recognize, it is certainly a part of the solution. Carbon pricing will help us get where we need to be on emissions, accelerate our economic transition, and show the rest of the world how a globally significant oil producer gets the job done.

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    image8
    20 Feb
    0

    How your backbenchers spent their summer vacation

    The House of Commons is “on a break” for the summer, as they say, and Members of Parliament will be “back to work” in the fall.

    While it’s true that the political news is a trifle thin these days (shirtless photos of the prime minister notwithstanding), we probably should dispense with the idea that MPs have stopped working.

    In fact, they may be doing more work away from Parliament than they do while the Commons is sitting — more work that they consider valuable, at least.

    All through the summer checking in on  MPs, first elected last year after that extra-long, August-to-October campaign. I gave the project so we could get to know some of the nearly 200 newcomers to this Commons, and remind myself of how political life is viewed through the eyes of people still new to it.

    One thread runs through all of the conversations we’ve had to date: These new MPs get far more out of their jobs the closer they are to their home ridings. While they’re awed, even humbled, by the majestic surroundings of their workplace on Parliament Hill, their main job satisfaction comes from day-to-day contact with the people in their ridings.

    “It is absolutely where I find I make the biggest difference,” said the new MP from the Windsor-area riding of Essex.

    The lawyer who pulled off two surprise upsets last year — taking the Liberal nomination away from Conservative defector former Minister and then defeating former finance minister.

    But it’s the work he’s been doing back in his constituency office, that makes him feel most useful — helping people navigate immigration applications, or deal with tax or benefit claims.

    New Conservative MP was showing me around his riding office and seemed most proud of one small room, filled with a growing pile of backpacks. In a few weeks, those backpacks will be loaded with school supplies and distributed to disadvantaged students in his community.

    He grew up in subsidized housing, relying a lot on charity. He spoke from some experience about the difference made in real people’s lives when MPs turn their attention to such projects.

    Every time one of these MPs talks to us about the rewards of constituency work, We reminded of a lunch I had years ago , not long after he was first elected as MP. We asked him: What was life like as an MP, compared to the political world he’d witnessed growing up at 24 Sussex?

    He said the biggest surprise — a pleasant one — came from his duties at the constituency office. He hadn’t seen his father doing that part of the MP’s job; as prime minister, He had to delegate most of the riding work to staff. But who (unlike his father) got his start in politics as a backbencher in opposition, said that riding work is where many everyday political problems get solved.

    What’s interesting about this aspect of an MP’s job — and the rewards MPs get out of it — is the fact that constituency work really isn’t all that partisan. Sure, some government MPs will try to boast that they’re getting more help for their ridings because they represent the party in power, but frankly, those immigration claims and tax-benefit issues are going to get attention no matter where the MP sits in the Commons. Very few MPs (unless they’re in politics for the short term) are going to tell a citizen that their office is open only to supporters of their party.

    Judging from the conversations we have had this summer and before, the partisan stuff is what appeals to backbench MPs the least. Question period, apparently, seems just as much of a circus to those down on the floor as it does to those in the gallery.

    In the meantime, it hasn’t been hard to find Members of Parliament willing to sit down and chat over the summer. The only problem  had has been with slotting interviews into their packed schedules, between back-to-back meetings or sessions of door-knocking in the ridings. In a very real sense, this summer hasn’t been any less busy for them than last August, when they were auditioning for the jobs they now hold.

    A month or so from now, when Parliament is getting set to restart for the fall, the headlines will be filled with that “back to work” phrase — as though political life as we know it simply ceased when the Commons went dark after Canada Day. But for most MPs, the real work — at least the work they like the best — never stopped.

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    image-3
    20 Jan
    0

    Political Financing

    The current Elections Act was amended considerably in the wake of the sponsorship scandal, which tarnished the governing Liberals in the mid-2000s.

    Today, the financing of political parties comes from two sources: individual contributions and public funding.

    Two series of amendments have tightened rules for private funding. The first, which stemmed from Bill C-24, came into force in 2004 under Jean Chrétien’s Liberal government. Other provisions were adopted by Stephen Harper’s Conservative government and came into effect in 2007 and 2008.

    Under these laws, Canada prohibits contributions from corporations, unions and other associations, unlike most provinces and territories in Canada. Individual contributions are also subject to a limit, which is regularly adjusted for inflation.

    Although funding from corporations and unions was stopped, direct public funding of political parties was increased.

    INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTIONS:

    In 2012, individuals could donate within these limits:

    • Up to $1,200 in total a year to a particular registered party
    • Up to $1,200 in total a year to the registered associations, nomination contestants   and candidates of a particular registered party
    • Up to $1,200 in total to each independent candidate in an election
    • Up to $1,200 in total to the contestants in a particular leadership contest
      Foreign donations are prohibited, but anonymous donations are permitted provided they are $20 or under.

    PUBLIC FUNDING:

    Political parties receive an annual allowance. It is based on the number of votes obtained in the previous election and is spread over four quarters. The allowance is regularly adjusted for inflation. In 2011, the indexed allowance amounted to $2 per vote obtained. To be eligible, a party must have obtained at least 2% of valid votes cast nationally, or at least 5% of valid votes cast in the ridings where it ran a candidate.

    Candidates and political parties also have part of their election expenses reimbursed provided they obtained a certain percentage of votes. The percentages set for the parties are the same as those for allowances.

    OTHER PROVISIONS:

    Election expenses of candidates and parties are subject to separate limits based on the number of electors registered.

    Any donation of $200 or more must be divulged.

    Finally, candidates, riding associations and political parties must all file financial reports.

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